Halten Bienen Winterschlaf? Was machen sie im Winter?

Bienen machen Honig, Bienen stechen, Bienen fliegen von Blüte zu Blüte, Bienen fliegen um ihre Bienenbeute, Bienen schwärmen… und noch so viel mehr Dinge können Bienen machen! Es ist wahr!!!Jedermann weiß das Bienen hart arbeitende Wesen sind! Und im Winter? Wenn du dich das nie gefragt hast… versuch mir hier und jetzt eine Antwort zu geben… was machen sie? Halten sie etwa Winterschlaf? Heute werden wir dieser Sache gemeinsam auf den Grund gehen!

Halten Bienen Winterschlaf?

Winter. Unglaublich kalt. Du erreichst den Bienengarten, kein summen, keine freudig umherfliegenden Bienen. Stille. Frieden. Auf eine andere Art und weise verströmt der Bienengarten auch im Winter dieses unglaublich schöne Gefühl von tiefem Frieden. “Doch wo sind all die Bienen? Schlafen sie?”. Auf eine solche Frage, vielleicht von einem Kind gestellt, würde man vielleicht antworten: „Ja, Liebling, die Bienen halten Winterschlaf, Damit sie sich bis zum Frühling, wenn die Natur erwacht, erholt haben!“ Das klingt doch gut, nicht wahr? Eine recht logische Erklärung wenn man die viele Harte Arbeit sieht welche Bienen im restlichen Jahr erledigen. Doch nein, Bienen halten keinen Winterschlaf. Absolut nicht.

Also wo gehen sie hin? Wo sind sie alle?

Sie sind alle in ihrer Bienenbeute. Nah beieinander. Ganz sicher werden sie die Beute nicht verlassen! Genaugenommen ist es das was normalerweise im Winter mit seinen frostigen Temperaturen passiert. Wenn jedoch, wie am 31.12.2021 die sonne scheint und um die 15°C herrschen (was hier absolut unüblich ist und noch nie so von uns erfahren wurde) kommen auch sie heraus um die Sonne zu genießen. In diesem Fall war es in der Bienenbeute definitiv zu warm. Nichtsdestotrotz, von einem normalen Winter gesprochen, verlassen die Beinen ihre Beute nicht, allerdings halten Sie auch keinen Winterschlaf. Sie erfreuen sich an den höheren Temperaturen im Bienenstock. Sehr eng beieinander, in Glomere.

Glome… was??

Ein weiteres komplett neues Wort für mich. Eines das ich lernte als ich dieser Welt der Bienen beitrat. Glomere. Einfach ausgedrückt beschreibt es einen Ballen oder ein Knäuel Bienen. In der Bienenbeute, auch wenn draußen Schnee liegt und unter 0°C herrschen, liegt die Temperatur deutlich über Null und innerhalb des Glomere sind es sogar ca. 34°C. Die Bienenbeuten befinden sich draußen im Schnee. Nicht geborgen in einem warmen Raum, ohne etwas das sie wärmt. Sie sind genau so wie sie auch den Rest des Jahres sind. Wie kann es also so warm darin sein? Die Temperatur in der Bienenbeute wird von den Bienen reguliert. Diese verlassen die Beute nciht mehr sobald es draußen kälter und kälter wird. Sie sparen Energien, erledigen nur noch das absolut notwendige und rücken näher zueinander bis sie eine Art Ball formen. den sogenannten Glomere.

Wie ist das möglich? Und wenn es extrem kalt ist?

Es ist ziemlich unmöglich das Bienen erfrieren, sie besitzen die Fähigkeit, die Temperatur im Bienenstock nahezu perfekt zu regulieren. Ich werde nie aufhören von ihren Fähigkeiten, ihrer Perfektion und Organisation überrascht zu werden. Eigentlich ist es wahrscheinlicher das sie im Winter verhungern als das sie erfrieren. Aus diesem Grund muss der gute Imker vorsichtig sein. Zu aller erst muss er an einem bestimmten Punkt im Jahr aufhören Honig zu ernten, sodass die Bienen genug Vorräte anlegen können. Dann muss er ihnen den Honig ersetzen indem er die Beinen mit Futter versorgt damit diese über den Winter kommen können. Unnötig zu erwähnen das in dieser Zeit auch keine Inspektionen durchgeführt werden können. Alternativ kannst du deine Ohren an die Bienenbeute legen und ihnen ‚zuhören‘ (oder du nutzt das Werkzeug welches Opa Heinz von seinem Vater erhielt, erinnerst du dich?). Auf diesem Wege kannst du erfahren ob die Bienen noch ‚da‘ sind oder nicht. Wenn jemand die Bienenbeuten, bei Temperaturen unter 10-15°C öffnet würde das ernsthafte Schäden verursachen. Höchstwahrscheinlich würde das gesamte Volk dadurch sterben. Denn dadurch würden das empfindliche Gleichgewicht der Temperaturen und der regulierenden Fähigkeit der Bienen gestört.

Eine letzte Sache noch

Bedenke immer das ein Bienenvolk über das Jahr größer und kleiner wird. Die Zahl der Bienen, welche ein Volk bilden, ist im Winter bedeutend geringer als im Sommer. Im Winter legt die Königin auch keine Eier so das die Anzahl der Bienen auch nicht erhöht wird. Die Königin wird erst zu beginn des Frühlings wieder anfangen und das Volk wird wachsen. Bienen halten keinen Winterschlaf doch sie leben weiter in ihrem Bienenstock und tun alles notwendige um die Temperatur in ihrer Mitte hoch zu halten. Bis der Frühling, die höheren Temperaturen und die Blüte der Blumen von neuem beginnen.

und der Imker?

Halten Bienen Winterschlaf? Imker nicht!

Nein, auch der Imker hält keinen Winterschlaf. Auch ich habe mich gefragt was der Imker im Winter unternimmt wenn all die üblichen Tätigkeiten aus Frühling und Sommer nicht unternommen werden können. Nun, es gibt immer viel zu tun.! So weit es um uns geht: aufräumen und reinigen, Rähmchen für die nächste Saison vorbereiten, ein paar neue Bienenbeuten vorbereiten… natürlich verkaufen wir weiterhin unseren Honig und wir experimentieren. Wie zum Beispiel mit Met! Mehr dazu findest du in den Instagram Stories und Highlights, falls du neugierig geworden sein solltest. Wir haben noch viele Projekte und genauso viel Enthusiasmus. Mit ein wenig Geduld und guter Organisation können wir alles erreichen. Schritt für Schritt!

Und du? Wie verbringst du die Wintertage? Winterschlaf oder Vorbereitung auf neue Projekte? Teile es uns einfach in den Kommentaren mit. Auch wir sind neugierig. 🙂

fühl dich gedrückt,

die Gaeblini

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