Foglio cereo in azione

Il foglio cereo: chi é costui? perché usarlo?

La prima volta che Basti ha aperto un’arnia e ho visto tutte queste api al lavoro sul favo appena estratto ero rimasta colpita. Se qualcuno me l’avesse detto anche solo un anno prima ‘Cri un giorno ti ritroverai in un apiario davanti a tantissime api svolacchianti!’ non ci avrei mai creduto. Avrei pensato che se mai fosse successo me la sarei data a gambe levate probabilmente. E invece ero lí, a osservare affascinata. Forse il profumo di cera e miele é cosí inebriante che fa sparire ogni timore? Potrebbe essere! Sta di fatto che ero lí e mi piaceva esser lí, anzi era quasi rilassante!

‘Ho un compito per te!’

‘Per me? cosa cosa cosa??’

‘Mettere i fogli cerei ai telaini!’

‘Cioé?’

‘Ce ne servono di nuovi con la primavera inoltrata…se ti va di darci una mano!’

‘Ma certo, peró non ho capito…Foglio cereo? La cera che c’é sui telaini non é messa dalle api??’

‘Mmmm no, non tutta per lo meno! Tranquilla, é semplice, dopo ti spiego tutto!’

Anche tu cadi dal pero come me? Posso capire…cos’é questa storia del foglio cereo? Centra senz’altro la cera, ma cos’é? Cosa si deve preparare? Per risolvere questi punti di domanda e scoprire questo aspetto in piú dell’apicoltura razionale odierna, vai avanti a leggere 🙂

Foglio cereo a chi?!!

Ebbene sí, quando l’apicoltore inserisce i telaini nell’arnia, questi hanno anche un foglio cereo, ovvero un vero e proprio foglio fatto di cera d’api. Sul foglio sono pressate tante cellette esagonali, proprio come quelle che le api costruiscono. Ma perché si mette sto foglio? Non sono giá capaci da sole le api? Certo, ma per evitare che prese dall’estro costruiscano il favo in un modo che complicherebbe poi la vita all’apicoltore, sia nelle ispezioni che nella smielatura, si utilizza questo trucchetto. Se non si seguisse questo metodo, costruirebbero il favo sotto il coperchio ad esempio e si correrebbe il rischio di danneggiare api-larve- cera ogni qual volta si apre per ispezionare. Alla fine é un po´ come guidarle: tu metti questo foglio e loro seguendo il disegno ci costruiscono sopra le loro cellette.

Ma chi ha lo ideato? Da dove nasce tutto ció?

C’era una volta, qualche secolo fa, un mondo di apicoltori che per invasettare il miele delle api non conosceva altro modo se non quello di ucciderle. Le api venivano soppresse a fine stagione per prenderne il miele. Fortunatamente, con l’illuminismo si é deciso di trovare una soluzione. Come si é messo fine all’apicidio? Inizió un susseguirsi di nuove tipologie di arnie e miglioramenti. Non per niente, proprio in questo periodo si affacciano sullo scenario apistico le arnie Langstroth e Dadant, di cui abbiamo parlato qui https://www.gaeblini.com/2021/03/28/quale-arnia-scegliere-e-con-che-criterio/.

L’arrivo dell’arnia razionale

Tra il 18esimo e 19simo secolo sono state ideate le cosiddette arnie razionali, ovvero quelle arnie che permettono la scorpacciata di miele senza ricorrere all’apicidio, e non solo. Avrebbero permesso anche un controllo appunto razionale della sciamatura naturale, permettendo una gestione piú efficiente dell’apiario.

Con l’arnia razionale si introducono ufficialmente concetti quali lo spazio d’ape e i telaini mobili (e tra poco arriviamo al foglio cereo, tranqui). Lo spazio d’ape é esattamente quello spazio preciso per il passaggio dell’ape tra i vari favi dell’arnia. Viene considerato uno spazio abbastanza grande per garantirne il passaggio, ma nemmeno troppo grande che poi verrebbe chiuso dall’ape presa dalla smania di lavorare. Se le api chiudono uno spazio eccessivamente grande per esempio tra il favo e la parete dell’arnia, l’apicoltore che sta ispezionando faticherá a estrarre il telaino. Con lo spazio d’ape si risolve il problema perché le api – mica sceme – sanno che quello é lo spazio perfetto per il loro passaggio e lo lasceranno libero e intatto.

Dicevamo…e i fogli cerei?

A metá ‘800 in Germania é stato inventato il foglio cereo. Si trattava di veri e propri fogli di cera, dove successivamente venivano impresse le forme delle cellette esagonali. Oggi si possono autoprodurre con degli appositi macchinari o é possibile eventualmente comprarli. Tuttavia bisogna fare attenzione, se si decide di comprarli ti devi affidare a dei rifornitori seri – vale la pena pagare un po´di piú ma assicurarsi che non siano realizzati con sostanze chimiche nocive che poi andrebbero a finire nell’alveare ovviamente e quindi anche nel nostro miele. Noi li compriamo da un rivenditore serio e affidabile ma in un futuro ci piacerebbe autoprodurceli (anche perché sono molto costosi e se si ha abbastanza cera per farseli da sé, converrebbe).

Ma questo foglio cereo, come lo metto nel telaino??

E qua, arrivo io eheh Ecco quello che mi chiedeva Basti. Sembrano un po’ quelle cose da stagisti che nessuno vuole fare, ma ad ogni modo é fondamentale averne pronti per quando inizia la bella stagione. Volendo é una di quelle attivitá apistiche di cui ci si puó occupare anche durante l’inverno. Alla fine é molto semplice (della serie se ce la faccio io, ce la possono fare tutti).

Partiamo dagli ‘ingredienti‘:

  • i telaini: hanno un filamento di ferro – ricordarsi questo particolare!
  • i fogli cerei precedentemente comprati (nulla vieta di farli da sé)
  • un piccolo trasformatore
  • una base di legno

Procedimento:

A questo punto il fil di ferro si scalda e la cera si scioglie leggermente, lasciando cosí affrancato il foglio cereo al telaino.

ET VOILÁ! LES JEUX SONT FAITS!


Ora dicci un po’ tu…Conoscevi il foglio cereo? Lo sapevi che spesso quindi i favi partono da una base prestampata?

Se hai trovato interessante l’articolo, condividilo pure!

Un abbraccio,

I Gäblini

294 commenti su “Il foglio cereo: chi é costui? perché usarlo?”

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