Le nostre api

Com’é fatto il corpo dell’ape?

Fan del cartone animato „Esplorando il corpo umano“ ne abbiamo? Anche tu lo guardavi qualche anno fa? Io se chiudo gli occhi sento e vedo ancora la sigla, mi piaceva tantissimo! 🙂 Ebbene, oggi non parliamo del corpo umano, ma…. del corpo dell’ape! Effettivamente, per capire meglio il mondo delle api e dell’apicoltura, é molto importante soffermarsi anche sull’anatomia delle api. Quanto ne sai giá del corpo dell’ape? Ha le ali, quello per forza! Delle zampine pure! E molto probabilmente le antenne se hai giá avuto modo di osservarle da vicino…e poi? Con l’articolo di oggi ti vogliamo mostrare quanto, nonostante siano minuscole, non gli manchi veramente nulla! Non ti preoccupare, non sará nulla di troppo complicato e noioso, ma sicuramente qualcosa che ti lascia qualche nozione in piú sulle nostre amiche apine!

Esplorando il corpo dell’ape

La maggior parte dei libri di apicoltura che ho avuto modo di leggere finora hanno una sezione piú o meno dettagliata che parla del corpo dell’ape. In effetti, se vuoi capire con maggiore consapevolezza il loro mondo é sicuramente essenziale avere qualche idea piú precisa rispetto anche a questo aspetto. Per lo stesso motivo per cui anche noi stessi a scuola nelle ore di scienze approfondiamo il corpo umano. Mi piace molto come affronta l’argomento l’esperto Paolo Fontana, nel suo libro ‘il piacere delle api‘, che ho seguito come spunto e guida piú che completa e affidabile per la stesura di quest’articolo.

Sicuramente a seconda che si parli dell’ape regina, operaia o del fuco, dei particolari cambiano. Tuttavia, qua ci interessa avere una panoramica generale. Innanzitutto, il corpo dell’ape é avvolto da un esoscheletro, letteralmente uno scheletro esterno. Si tratta di una membrana piuttosto rigida con delle parti piú elastiche che si adattano ai movimenti e alla crescita dell’ape. Il corpo dell’ape inoltre, come tutti gli apodei, é ricoperto da una leggera peluria, fondamentale per la raccolta del polline per esempio.

Testa, spalle, baby 1 2 3

Partendo dalla testa, troviamo importanti organi di senso. Tipo… gli occhi? Le api hanno gli occhi giusto?? Si, assolutamente sí (da lí anche la percezione dei colori), ma sicuramente non vedono esattamente come noi! Difatti, hanno due occhi grandi composti da tanti mini-occhi, per questo quello che vedono é come formato da tante minuscole tesserine. In alto ci sono le antenne, fondamentali per percepire suoni e odori, ma non solo. Hanno anche ben 3 occhi minuscoli, gli ocelli. Questi sono occhi speciali perché non distinguono le immagini, ma percepiscono l’intensitá della luce. É fondamentale per il loro orientamento, dato che gli permette di localizzare il sole anche quando c’é nuvoloso. E parlando del capo delle api, che ci sará ancora? Beh, la bocca! L’apparato boccale é composto da due mandibole arrotondate e innocue (non ti morsicano, vai tranqui!), dietro le quali si trova la famosa proboscide delle api, detta piú scientificamente, la ligula. Attraverso questa, ad esempio, prelevano il nettare dai fiori.

Il corpo dell’ape: il torace e l’addome

L’addome contiene l’apparato digerente, la borsa melaria (dove conservano il nettare appena raccolto), ma anche gli organi riproduttivi. É anche la parte del corpo dell’ape dove si trova il pungiglione e le ghiandole della cera. Al torace invece sono strettamente connessi gli organi di movimento. Non a caso, il torace é pieno di muscoli, utilizzati in volo, nelle loro danze o anche per riscaldare. Inoltre, proprio lí sono annesse…quante zampe hanno le api?? Lo sai? Prova a indovinare 🙂

Il corpo dell'ape ha tutto: anche delle cestelle raccogli polline!
Visto il polline sulle gambette?

Le api hanno tre paia di zampe, quindi in totale sei. E menomale ne hanno parecchie, visto che ci devono fare un bel po’ di cose! Con quelle anteriori per esempio ci puliscono le antennine, mentre quelle posteriori hanno le cestelle raccogli-polline. Sempre al torace, sono collegate le ali. Un’ala anteriore e una posteriore, per lato. Quando non volano, l’ala anteriore é ripiegata su quella posteriore, quindi appare come un’unica aletta. Quando peró l’ape scatta in volo, le ali si agganciano formandone una sola e grande.


Incredibile quanto sia ben assortito e organizzato anche lo stesso corpo dell’ape, vero? Qual é la caratteristica che piú ti ha colpito? Se ti va, facci sapere qui sotto 🙂 ci farebbe piacere leggere le tue impressioni! 🙂

Un abbraccio,

i Gaeblini

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